What constitutes a violation of Freedom of Religion or Belief (FoRB) is a complex and frequently contested topic for discussion: violations range from the explicit (including persecution and violence) to the more subtle (including the denial of access to public services and civic life).
There is an ongoing debate over whether there are legitimate limits to FoRB and, if so, what would constitute such a limit.
This Cumberland Lodge Briefing was first prepared in 2017 by our freelance Research Associate Kat Eghdamian, and was updated in May 2019.
It offers an overview of global violations of FoRB, including:conversion and apostasy laws; the disclosure of religion (for example on identity documents); the denial of education; and religiously-motivated conflict and violence.
Read and download
The Briefing is distributed to delegates enrolled on our Emerging International Leaders Programme on FoRB, to help them prepare them for the second of three weekend retreats held at Cumberland lodge.
It can be read in full-screen mode here, or downloaded in compressed pdf format from the download link on this webpage.